the woman composer question: a bibliography
Eugene Gates, Ed.D.

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Ammer, Christine. Unsung: A History of Women in American Music. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980.
Anderson, Bonnie S. and Zinsser, Judith P. A History of Their Own: Women in Europe from Prehistory to the Present. 2 vols. New York: Harper & Row, 1989.
Archer, John and Lloyd, Barbara. Sex and Gender. Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Attallah, Naim. Women. London and New York: Quartet Books, 1987.
Baldauf-Berdes, Jane L. Women Musicians of Venice: Musical Foundations, 1525-1855. Revised ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
Barron, Frank. Creative Person and Creative Process. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969.
Battersby, Christine. Gender and Genius: Towards a Feminist Aesthetics. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1989.
Bergeron, Katherine and Bohlman, Philip V., eds. Disciplining Music: Musicology and Its Canons. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Block, Adrienne Fried. Amy Beach, Passionate Victorian: The Life and Work of an American Composer 1867-1944. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Block, Adrienne Fried and Neuls-Bates, Carol, eds. Women in American Music: A Bibliography of Music and Literature. Westport, Conn. and London: Greenwood Press, 1979.
Bogin, Meg. The Women Troubadours. New York: Norton, 1980.
Bowers, Jane and Tick, Judith, eds. Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150-1950. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1986.
Brett, Philip, Wood, Elizabeth, and Thomas, Gary C., eds. Queering the Pitch: The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology. New York and London: Routledge, 1994.
Briscoe, James R., ed. Historical Anthology of Music by Women. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1987.
Chadwick, Whitney. Women, Art, and Society. London: Thames & Hudson, 1990.
Chissell, Joan. Clara Schumann: A Dedicated Spirit. New York: Taplinger, 1983.
Citron, Marcia J. Cecile Chaminade. A Bio-Bibliography. New York and London: Greenwood Press, 1988.
Citron, Marcia J. Gender and the Musical Canon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Cohen, Aaron I. International Encyclopedia of Women Composers. 2nd ed. 2 vols. New York and London: Books and Music (USA) Inc., 1987.
Collis, Louise. Impetuous Heart: The Story of Ethel Smyth. London: William Kimber, 1984.
Cook, Susan C. and Tsou, Judy S., eds. Cecilia Reclaimed: Feminist Perspectives on Gender and Music. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
Copland, Aaron. Music and Imagination. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952.
Curtis, Liane, ed. Rebecca Clarke Reader. Waltham, MA: Rebecca Clarke Society, 2005.
Dijkstra, Bram. Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in Fin-de-Siecle Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Drakich, Janice, Kovarik, Edward, and Lumpkin, Ramona, eds. With a Song in Her Heart: A Celebration of Canadian Women Composers. Windsor, Ontario, Canada: Humanities Research Group, University of Windsor, 1995. [Includes a useful bibliography.]
Drinker, Sophie. Music and Women: The Story of Women in Their Relation to Music. Washington: Zenger, 1977. A reprint of the 1948 edition.
Eastman, Sheila and McGee, Timothy J. Barbara Pentland. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983.
Eckhardt, Ferdinand. Music from Within: A Biography of the Composer S.C. Eckhardt-Grammate. Ed. Gerald Bowler. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1985.
Ellis, Havelock. Man and Woman: A Study of Secondary and Tertiary Sexual Characteristics. 8th ed. London: Heinemann, 1934.
Ellis, Mrs. [Sarah]. The Daughters of England: Their Position in Society, Character and Responsibilities. London and Paris: Fisher, Son, & Co., 1842.
Elson, Arthur. Woman's Work in Music. Boston: L.C. Page, 1903.
Elson, Lewis C. The History of American Music. New York: Burt Franklin, 1971. [A reprint of the 1925 edition].
Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Myths of Gender: Biological Myths about Women and Men. New York: Basic Books, 1985.
Flanagan, Sabina. Hildegard of Bingen: A Visionary Life. London and New York: Routledge, 1989.
Fuller, Sophie. The Pandora Guide to Women Composers: Britain and the United States 1629-Present. London: HarperCollins, 1994.
Gillett, Paula. Musical Women in England, 1870-1914: "Encroaching on All Man's Privileges." New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.
Girod, Francoise. Alma Mahler, or the Art of Being Loved. Translated by R.M. Stock. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Glickman, Sylvia and Schleifer, Martha Furman [Eds.]: Women Composers: Music through the Ages. New York: G.K. Hall & Co. [An Imprint of Simon & Shuster Macmillan]. [12 vols.: I-II(1996), III-V(1998), VI-VIII(1999-2005) IX-XII (to be published)].
Goetschius, Percy. Mrs. H. H. A. Beach. Boston: Arthur P. Schmidt, 1906.
Gray, Anne K. The World of Women in Classical Music. La Jolla, Calif.: WordWorld, 2007.
Green, Lucy. Music, Gender, Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Greenglass, Esther R. A World of Difference: Gender Roles in Perspective. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons, 1982.
Greer, Germaine. The Obstacle Race: The Fortunes of Women Painters and Their Work. London: Picador, 1981.
Halstead, Jill. Ruth Gipps: Anti-Modernist, Nationalism and Difference in English Music. Aldershot and Brookfield, USA: Ashgate, 2006.
Halstead, Jill. The Woman Composer: Creativity and the Gendered Politics of Musical Composition. Aldershot and Brookfield, USA: Ashgate, 1997.
Hanslick, Eduard. On the Musically Beautiful. Translated from the 8th German edition by Geoffrey Paysant. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1986.
Harries, Meirion and Harries, Susie. A Pilgrim Soul: The Life and Work of Elisabeth Lutyens. London: Michael Joseph, 1989.
Hartig, Linda. Violet Archer: A Bio-Bibliography. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.
Hartl, Karla and Erik Entwistle [eds.]. The Kapralova Companion. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2011.
Hensel, Fanny. The Letters of Fanny Hensel to Felix Mendelssohn. Edited and translated, and with introductory essays and notes by Marcia J. Citron. New York: Pendragon Press, 1987.
Hensel, Sebastian. The Mendelssohn Family (1729-1847), from Letters and Journals. [2nd ed. Translated by Carl Klingemann and an American collaborator]. 2 vols. New York: Harper & Bros., 1881.
Hixon, Donald I. Thea Musgrave: A Bio-Bibliography. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984.
Hughes, Rupert. Contemporary American Composers. Boston: L.C. Page, 1900.
Hyde, Derek. New Found Voices: Women in Nineteenth Century English Music. 3rd ed. Aldershot and Brookfield USA: Ashgate, 1998.
Jenkins, Walter S. The Remarkable Mrs. Beach, American Composer. Warren, Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 1994.
Jezic, Diane Peacock. Women Composers: The Lost Tradition Found. [With a foreword by Elizabeth Wood]. New York: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1988.
Keegan, Susanne. The Bride of the Wind: The Life of Alma Mahler. London: Secher & Warburg, 1991.
Kos, Koraljka. Dora Pejacevic. Zagreb: Croatian Music Information Centre, 2008.
Koskoff, Ellen, ed. Women and Music in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1989.
Litzmann, Berthold. Clara Schumann: An Artist's Life, Based on Material Found in Diaries and Letters. [Abridged and translated from the 4th German edition by Grace E. Hadow]. London and Leipzig: Macmillan and Breitkopf & Hartel, 1913.
Lloyd, Genevieve. The Man of Reason: "Male" and "Female" in Western Philosophy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.
Loesser, Arthur. Men, Women and Pianos: A Social History. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1954.
Lutyens, Elisabeth. A Goldfish Bowl. London: Cassell, 1972.
Maccoby, Eleanor Emmons and Jacklin, Carol Nagy. The Psychology of Sex Differences. 2 vols. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974.
Mahler, Gustav. Letters to His Wife. Edited by Louis de la Grange and Günther Weiss, in collaboration with Knud Martner. Revised and translated by Anthony Beaumont. London: Faber and Faber, 2004.
Mahler-Werfel, Alma. Diaries 1898-1902. Selected and translated by Antony Beaumont. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998.
Marshall, Kimberly, ed. Rediscovering the Muses: Women's Musical Traditions. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1993.
May, Florence. The Girlhood of Clara Schumann: Clara Wieck and Her Time. London: Edward Arnold, 1912.
McClary, Susan. Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.
Mill, John Stuart. The Subjection of Women. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1986.
Monson, Karen. Alma Mahler: Muse to Genius. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983.
Neuls-Bates, Carol, ed. Women in Music: An Anthology of Source Readings from the Middle Ages to the Present. Revised ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1996. [Includes an extensive bibliography.]
Nicholson, John. Men and Women: How Different Are They? Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Olsen, Tillie. Silences. New York: Delta/Seymour Lawrence, 1989.
Pendle, Karin, ed. Women and Music: A History. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1991.
Reich, Nancy B. Clara Schumann: The Artist and Woman. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1985.
Rosentiel, Leonie. The Life and Works of Lili Boulanger. Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1978.
________. Nadia Boulanger: A Life in Music. New York: Norton, 1982.
Rubinstein, Anton. A Conversation on Music. [Translated by Mrs. John P. Morgan.] New York: C.F. Tretbar, 1892; [reprint ed., New York: Da Capo, 1982].
Sadie, Julie Anne, and Samuel, Rhian, eds. The New Grove Dictionary of Women Composers. London: Macmillan, 1994.
St.John, Christopher. Ethel Smyth: A Biography. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1959.
Saint Hildegard of Bingen. Symphonia: A Critical Edition of the Symphonia armonie celestium revelationum. [With Introduction, translations and commentary by Barbara Newman.] Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1991.
Saint-Saëns, Camille. Harmonie et melodie. 3rd ed. Paris: Calmann Levy, 1885.
Schumann, Robert and Schumann, Clara. The Marriage Diaries of Robert and Clara Schumann. Edited by Gerd Nauhaus. Translated, with a preface, by Peter Ostwald. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1993.
Scott, Derek B. The Singing Bourgeois: Songs of the Victorian Drawing Room and Parlour. 2nd ed. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.
Smyth, Ethel. Impressions that Remained. 2 vols. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1919.
________. Streaks of Life. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1921.
________. A Final Burning of Boats. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1928.
________. Female Pipings in Eden. Edinburgh: Peter Davies, 1933.
________. Beecham and Pharaoh. London: Chapman & Hall, 1935.
________. As Time Went On. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1936.
________. What Happened Next. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1940.
________. The Memoirs of Ethel Smyth. [Abridged and introduced by Ronald Crichton.] New York: Viking, 1987.
Solie, Ruth A., ed. Musicology and Difference: Gender and Sexuality in Music Scholarship. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 1993.
Tick, Judith. American Women Composers before 1870. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1983.
Tick, Judith. Ruth Crawford Seeger: A Composer's Search for American Music. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Tillard, Francoise. Fanny Mendelssohn. [Translated by Camille Naish]. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press, 1996.
Todd, R. Larry. Fanny Hensel: The Other Mendelssohn. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Upton, George P. Woman in Music. 6th ed. Chicago: McClurg, 1899.
Weliver, Phyllis. Women Musicians in Victorian Fiction, 1860-1900: Representations of Music, Science and Gender in the Leisured Home. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.
Werfel, Alma Mahler. And the Bridge is Love. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1958.
Williams, Juanita H. Psychology of Women: Behavior in a Biosocial Context. New York: Norton, 1977.
Wolff, Janet. Aesthetics and the Sociology of Art. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1983.
________. The Social Production of Art. New York: New York University Press, 1984.
Women's Studies/Women's Status. Boulder: The College Music Society, 1988. [Includes an extensive annotated bibliography.]
Zaimont, Edith Lang & Gottlieb et. al. The Musical Woman: An International Perspective. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press [3 vols: I (1984); II (1987); III (1991)].


Gates, Eugene. The Woman Composer Question: Four Case Studies from the Romantic Era. Ed.D. dissertation, University of Toronto, 1992.
Sirota, Victoria Ressmeyer. The Life and Works of Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel. Mus.A.D. dissertation, Boston University School of the Arts, 1981.
Theeman, Nancy Sarah. The Life and Songs of Augusta Holmes. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, 1983.
Trollinger, Laree McNeal. A Study of the Biographical and Personality Factors of Creative Women in Music. D.M.A. dissertation, Temple University, 1979.

articles, essays, and parts of books

Adams, Mrs. Crosby. "Musical Creative Work among Women." Music 9 (January 1896): 262-72.
Armstrong, William. "New Gems in the Old Classics: A Talk with Mrs. H. H. A. Beach." Etude 22 (February 1904): 51-51.
Barkin, Elaine, ed. "In Response." Perspectives of New Music 20/21. (1981-82): 288-329.
Beach, Mrs. H. H. A. "Woman's Work in Music, A Letter from Mrs. H. H. A. Beach." Etude 16 (May 1898): 100.
Beecham, Sir Thomas. "Dame Ethel Smyth (1858-1944)." Musical Times 99 (July 1958): 363-65.
Bernstein, Jane A. " 'Shout, Shout, Up with Your Song!' Dame Ethel Smyth and the Changing Role of the British Woman Composer." In Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150-1950, pp. 304-24. Edited by Jane Bowers and Judith Tick. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1986.
Block, Adrienne Fried. "Why Amy Beach Succeeded as a Composer: The Early Years." Current Musicology 36 (1983): 41-59.
Bloomfield-Zeisler, Fanny. "Woman in Music." American Art Journal 48 (17 October 1891): 1-2.
Borroff, Edith. "Women Composers: Reminiscence and History." College Music Symposium 15 (Fall 1975): 26-33.
Brooks, Benjamin. "The 'How' of Creative Composition: A Conference with Mrs. H. H. A. Beach." Etude 41 (March 1943): 151, 208-09.
Brower, Edith. "Is the Musical Idea Masculine?" Atlantic Monthly, March 1894, pp. 332-39.
Brower, Harriette. "A Personal Interview with Mrs. H. H. A. Beach." Musical Observer 12 (May 1915): 273-74.
Burgan, Mary. "Heroines at the Piano: Women and Music in Nineteenth-Century Fiction." In The Lost Chord: Essays on Victorian Music, pp. 42-67. Edited by Nicholas Temperley. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1989.
Citron, Marcia J. "The Lieder of Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel." Musical Quarterly 49 (1983): 57-94.
________. "Felix Mendelssohn's Influence on Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel as a Professional Composer." Current Musicology 37/38 (1984): 9-17.
________. "Gender, Professionalism, and the Musical Canon." Journal of Musicology 8 (Winter 1990): 102-17.
Clark, Helen A. "The Nature of Music and its Relation to the Question of Women in Music." Music 7 (March 1895): 453-61.
Copland, Aaron. "The Teacher: Nadia Boulanger." In his Copland on Music, pp. 83-91. New York: Norton, 1960.
Curtis, Liane. "A Case of Identity: Rescuing Rebecca Clarke." Musical Times 137 (May 1996): 15-21.
Dalen, Brenda. "The Composer's Voice: 'What Women Can Do'." Canadian University Music Review 16/1 (1995): 14-40. [Special issue in honour of Canadian composer Violet Archer. Dalen's article focuses on Archer's life and career.]
Ecker, Gisela. Introduction to her Feminist Aesthetics. [Translated by Harriet Anderson.] London: The Women's Press, 1985.
Eggleston, George Cary. "The Education of Women." Harper's New Monthly Magazine. July 1883, pp. 292-96.
Einstein, Robert. "Yes, Virginia, There Are Women Composers in Early Music." Early Music America 3 (Spring 1997): 22-27.
Elder, Dean. "Where Was Amy Beach All These Years? An Interview with Mary Louise Boehm." Clavier 15 (December 1976): 14-17.
Ellis, Havelock. "The Mind of Woman." In his The Philosophy of Conflict and Other Essays in War-Time, 2nd series, pp. 157-74. London: Constable, 1919.
Farnsworth, Paul R. "The Effects of Role-Taking on Artistic Achievement." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 18 (March 1960): 245-49.
Fay, Amy. "Women and Music." Music 18 (October 1900): 505-07.
Finck, Henry T. "Woman's Conquest of Music." Musician 7 (May 1902): 186.
Flor-Henry, Pierre. "Mood, the Right Hemisphere and the Implications of Spatial Information Perceiving Systems." Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavior 8 (1984): 143-70.
Fromm, Paul. "Creative Women in Music: A Historical Perspective." In A Life for New Music: Selected Papers of Paul Fromm, pp. 42-51. Edited by David Gable and Christoph Wolff. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.
Gates, Eugene. "Clara Schumann: A Composer's Wife as Composer." Kapralova Society Journal 7, no. 2 (Fall 2009): 1-7.
______. "Damned if You Do and Damned if You Don't: Sexual Aesthetics and the Music of Dame Ethel Smyth." Journal of Aesthetic Education 31 (Spring 1997): 63-71. Reprinted in Kapralova Society Journal 4, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 1-5.
______. "Ethel Smyth: Pioneer of English Opera. Kapralova Society Journal 11, no. 1 (Spring 2013): 1-8.
______. "Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel: A Life of music within domestic limits." Kapralova Society Journal 5, no. 2 (Fall 2007): 1-11.
______. "Mrs. H.H.A. Beach: American Symphonist." Kapralova Society Journal 8, no. 2 (Fall 2010): 1-10.
______. "Where Are All the Women Composers? Reclaiming a Cultural Heritage." Canadian Music Educator 35 (Spring 1994): 17-19. Reprinted in Kapralova Society Journal 3, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 8-10.
______. "Why Have There Been No Great Women Composers? Psychological Theories, Past and Present." Journal of Aesthetic Education 28 (Summer 1994): 27-34.
______. "The Woman Composer Question: Philosophical and Historical Perspectives." Kapralova Society Journal 4, no. 2 (Fall 2006): 1-11.
______. "Female Composers: A Critical Review of the Psychological Literature." Canadian Music Educator 39 (Winter 1998): 37-41. Reprinted in Kapralova Society Journal 3, no. 2 (Fall 2005): 6-11.
Haas, Michael. "Women Composers: 'Degenerate,' 'Deviant,' or Deliberately Downgraded?" Kapralova Society Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 10-12.
Harris, Lauren Julius. "Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: Possible Environmental, Genetic, and Neurological Factors." In Asymmetrical Functions of the Brain, pp. 405-522. Edited by Marcel Kinsbourne. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.
Hinely, Mary Brown. "The Uphill Climb of Women in American Music: Conductors and Composers." Music Educators Journal 70 (May 1984): 42-45.
Hughes, Edwin. "The Outlook for the Young American Composer: An Interview with the Distinguished American Composer, Mrs. H. H. A. Beach." Etude 33 (January 1915): 13-14.
"Is There a Feminist Aesthetic in Music?" Heresies, no. 10 (1980), pp. 20-24.
Jezic, Diane and Binder, Daniel. "A Survey of College Music Textbooks: Benign Neglect of Women Composers?" In The Musical Woman: An International Perspective, 1984-85, pp. 445-69. Edited by Judith Lang Zaimont. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.
Kallberg, Jeffrey. "The Harmony of the Tea Table: Gender and Ideology in the Piano Nocturne." In his Chopin at the Boundaries: Sex, History, and Musical Genre, pp. 30-61. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Ladd, George Trumbull. "Why Women Cannot Compose." Yale Review 6 (July 1917): 789-806.
Lamb, Roberta. "Are There Gender Issues in School Music?" Canadian Music Educator 31 (May 1990): 9-13.
Leonard, Kendra Preston. " 'Excellence in Execution' and 'Fitness for Teaching': Assessments of Women at the Conservatoire Américain." Women & Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture 11 (2007): 29-50.
Levy, A.H. "Double-Bars and Double Standards: Female Composers in America 1800-1920." International Journal of Women's Studies 6 (March/April 1983): 162-75.
MacDonald, Claudia. "Are We There? Women's Studies in a Professional Music Program." Women & Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture 8 (2004): 42-46.
Nochlin, Linda. "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?" In Woman in Sexist Society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness, pp. 480-510. Edited by Vivian Gornick and Barbara K. Moran. New York and Scarborough, Ont.: Mentor, 1971.
Olson, Judith E. "Luise Adolpha Le Beau: Composer in Late Nineteenth Century Germany." In Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150-1950, pp. 282-303. Edited by Jane Bowers and Judith Tick. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1986.
Parsons, James. "Emerging from the Shadows: Fanny Mendelssohn and Clara Schumann." Opus 2 (February 1986): 27-31.
Richards, Janet Radcliffe. "Women's Abilities and Women's Rights." Manchester Guardian Weekly, 3 December 1989, p. 23.
Rieger, Eva. " 'Dolce semplice'? On the Changing Role of Women in Music." In Feminist Aesthetics, pp.135-49. Edited by Gisela Ecker. [Translated by Harriet Anderson.] London: Women's Press, 1985.
Rieger, Eva. " 'I Recycle Sounds': Do Women Compose Differently?" In Source Readings in Music History, pp. 1415-20. Revised ed. Edited by Oliver Strunk and Leo Treitler. New York: Norton, 1998.
Rorem, Ned. "Ladies' Music." In his Critical Affairs: A Composer's Journal, pp. 95-110. New York: George Braziller, 1970.
Rubin-Rabson, Grace. "Why Haven't Women Become Great Composers?" High Fidelity/Musical America 23 (February 1973): 47-50.
Sang, Barbara E. "Women and the Creative Process." The Arts in Psychotherapy 8 (1981): 43-48.
Sayers, Elizabeth. "Deconstructing McClary: Narrative, Feminine Sexuality, and Feminism in Susan McClary's Feminine Endings." College Music Symposium 33/34 (1993-94): 41-55.
Schopenhauer, Arthur. "On Women." In his Essays and Aphorisms, pp. 80-88. [Translated by R.J. Hollingdale.] Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1981.
Seashore, Carl E. "Why No Great Women Composers?" In his In Search of Beauty in Music: A Scientific Approach to Musical Esthetics, pp. 363-67. New York: The Ronald Press, 1947.
Shields, Stephanie A. "Functionalism, Darwinism, and the Psychology of Women." American Psychologist 30 (July 1975): 739-54.
Smith, Fanny Morris. "The Record of Woman in Music." Etude 19 (September 1901): 317.
Solie, Ruth A. "What Do Feminists Want? A Reply to Pieter van den Toorn." Journal of Musicology (Fall 1991): 399-410.
Steblin, Rita. "The Gender Stereotyping of Musical Instruments in the Western Tradition." Canadian University Music Review 16/1 (1995): 128-44.
Stratton, Stephen S. "Woman in Relation to Musical Art." Proceedings of the Musical Association (7 May 1883), pp. 112-46.
Sutro, Florence. "Woman's Work in Music." Vocalist 8 (May 1894): 161-65.
Tick, Judith. "Passed Away is the Piano Girl: Changes in American Musical Life, 1870-1900." In Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150-1950, pp.325-48. Edited by Jane Bowers and Judith Tick. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1986.
________. "Women as Professional Musicians in the United States, 1870-1900." Yearbook for Inter-American Musical Research 9 (1973): 95-133.
Tilley, Janette. "Representations of Gender in Barbara Pentland's Disasters of the Sun." Canadian University Music Review 22/2(2002):77-92.
Tuthill, Burnet C. "Mrs. H. H. A. Beach." Musical Quarterly 26 (July 1940): 297-310.
Waleson, Heidi. "Women Composers Find Things Easier--Sort Of." New York Times, 28 January 1990, p. H27.
Werner, Jack. "Felix and Fanny Mendelssohn." Music and Letters 28 (October 1947): 303-37.
Wolff, Janet. "The Ideology of Autonomous Art." In Music and Society: The Politics of Composition, Performance and Reception, pp. 1-12. Edited by Richard Leppert and Susan McClary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Woodford, Paul G. "Music, Reason, Democracy, and the Construction of Gender." Journal of Aesthetic Education 35 (Fall 2001): 73-86.
Woolf, Virginia. "Professions for Women." In her Women and Writing, pp. 58-64. Edited and with an introduction by Michele Barrett. Toronto: Quadrant Editions, 1984.

Eugene Gates holds a B.A. in music (Acadia University), an M.A. in music criticism (Mc Master University), and an Ed.D. in aesthetics of music (University of Toronto). He is a retired faculty member of the Royal Conservatory of Music in Toronto. His articles on women composers and other musical subjects have appeared in the Journal of Aesthetic Education, Canadian Music Educator, Journal of the American Liszt Society, Tempo, Music Educators Journal, Czech Music, Viva Voce, University of Toronto Quarterly, and Kapralova Society Journal. Dr. Gates serves on the Board of the Kapralova Society, sits on the Society's Advisory Committee, and co-edits the Kapralova Society Journal.

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